feedback

One of the 4 techniques, associated with learning gain, used by the timely practice system - with the aid of the timely practice app.

In a nutshell:

feedback: is used to design a better bridge between the teacher and the learner, a bridge from teaching to learning. 


SRS Learning says

One can think of feedback as the essential follow up from assessment for learning, what the teacher and learner do together, when learning is not going "quite to plan".

What educational researchers say

Feedback exists in any process, activity or information that enhances learning by providing learners with the opportunity to reflect on their current or recent level of attainment. Feedback should be a continuous process of conversation and reflection.

https://www.sheffield.ac.uk/lets/toolkit/f-a/1.209066

Meta-analysis (educational research) says:

Studies showing the highest effect sizes involved learners receiving information feedback about a task and how to do it more effectively. 

The most effective forms of feedback provide cues or reinforcement to learners; are in the form of video-, audio-, or computer-assisted instructional feedback; and/or relate to goals. 

Specifically, feedback is more effective when it provides information on correct rather than incorrect responses and when it builds on changes from previous trials. 

It appears to have the most impact when goals are specific and challenging but task complexity is low. 

It appears to be more effective when there are perceived low rather than high levels of threat to self-esteem.

Feedback, however, is not “the answer”; rather, it is but one powerful answer. With inefficient learners, it is better for a teacher to provide elaborations through instruction than to provide feedback on poorly understood concepts.

As Kluger and DeNisi (1996) noted, a feedback intervention provided for a familiar task, containing cues that support learning, attracting attention to feedback-standard discrepancies at the task level, and void of cues that direct attention to the self is likely to yield impressive gains in learners’ performance. It is important to note, however, that under particular circumstances, instruction is more effective than feedback. Feedback can only build on something; it is of little use when there is no initial learning or surface information. Feedback is what happens second, is one of the most powerful influences on learning, too rarely occurs, and needs to be more fully researched by qualitatively and quantitatively investigating how feedback works in the classroom and learning process

The Power of Feedback REVIEW OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH 2007 77: 81 DOI: 10.3102/003465430298487 John Hattie and Helen Timperley 

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/003465430298487


Specifically, an FI (feedback intervention) provided for a familiar task, containing cues that support learning, attracting attention to feedback-standard discrepancies at the task level (velocity FI and goal setting), and is void of cues to the metatask level (e.g., cues that direct attention to the self) is likely to yield impressive gains in performance, possibly exceeding 1 SD

Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–284. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=5C5BD435EEA9AF1B50655B33CC3A29C1?doi=10.1.1.461.6812&rep=rep1&type=pdf


More readable references

Seven Keys to Effective Feedback Grant Wiggins

  • Tangible and Transparent
  • Actionable
  • User-Friendly
  • Timely
  • Ongoing
  • Consistent
  • Progress Towards a Goal

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept12/vol70/num01/Seven-Keys-to-Effective-Feedback.aspx

A blog from an expert

Dylan William on feedback


Why are so many of our teachers and schools so successful? John Hattie

Teachers are mainly effective: 4.00 min

More effective strategies 8:50 min 


Faith Thomas explains the concepts outlined in "The Power of Feedback" by John Hattie and Helen Timperley